ffmpeg reads from an arbitrary number of input ``files'' (which can be regular files, pipes, network streams, grabbing devices, etc.), specified by the "-i" option, and writes to an arbitrary number of output ``files'', which are specified by a plain output filename. Anything found on the command line which cannot be interpreted as an option is considered to be an output filename.
Each input or output file can, in principle, contain any number of streams of different types (video/audio/subtitle/attachment/data). The allowed number and/or types of streams may be limited by the container format. Selecting which streams from which inputs will go into which output is either done automatically or with the "-map" option (see the Stream selection chapter).
To refer to input files in options, you must use their indices (0-based). E.g. the first input file is 0, the second is 1, etc. Similarly, streams within a file are referred to by their indices. E.g. "2:3" refers to the fourth stream in the third input file. Also see the Stream specifiers chapter.
As a general rule, options are applied to the next specified file. Therefore, order is important, and you can have the same option on the command line multiple times. Each occurrence is then applied to the next input or output file. Exceptions from this rule are the global options (e.g. verbosity level), which should be specified first.
Do not mix input and output files --- first specify all input files, then all output files. Also do not mix options which belong to different files. All options apply ONLY to the next input or output file and are reset between files.
ffmpeg -i input.avi -b:v 64k -bufsize 64k output.avi
ffmpeg -i input.avi -r 24 output.avi
ffmpeg -r 1 -i input.m2v -r 24 output.avi
The format option may be needed for raw input files.
_______ ______________ | | | | | input | demuxer | encoded data | decoder | file | ---------> | packets | -----+ |_______| |______________| | v _________ | | | decoded | | frames | |_________| ________ ______________ | | | | | | | output | <-------- | encoded data | <----+ | file | muxer | packets | encoder |________| |______________|
ffmpeg calls the libavformat library (containing demuxers) to read input files and get packets containing encoded data from them. When there are multiple input files, ffmpeg tries to keep them synchronized by tracking lowest timestamp on any active input stream.
Encoded packets are then passed to the decoder (unless streamcopy is selected for the stream, see further for a description). The decoder produces uncompressed frames (raw video/PCM audio/...) which can be processed further by filtering (see next section). After filtering, the frames are passed to the encoder, which encodes them and outputs encoded packets. Finally those are passed to the muxer, which writes the encoded packets to the output file.
Simple filtergraphs are those that have exactly one input and output, both of the same type. In the above diagram they can be represented by simply inserting an additional step between decoding and encoding:
_________ ______________ | | | | | decoded | | encoded data | | frames |\ _ | packets | |_________| \ /||______________| \ __________ / simple _\|| | / encoder filtergraph | filtered |/ | frames | |__________|
Simple filtergraphs are configured with the per-stream -filter option (with -vf and -af aliases for video and audio respectively). A simple filtergraph for video can look for example like this:
_______ _____________ _______ ________ | | | | | | | | | input | ---> | deinterlace | ---> | scale | ---> | output | |_______| |_____________| |_______| |________|
Note that some filters change frame properties but not frame contents. E.g. the "fps" filter in the example above changes number of frames, but does not touch the frame contents. Another example is the "setpts" filter, which only sets timestamps and otherwise passes the frames unchanged.
Complex filtergraphs are those which cannot be described as simply a linear processing chain applied to one stream. This is the case, for example, when the graph has more than one input and/or output, or when output stream type is different from input. They can be represented with the following diagram:
_________ | | | input 0 |\ __________ |_________| \ | | \ _________ /| output 0 | \ | | / |__________| _________ \| complex | / | | | |/ | input 1 |---->| filter |\ |_________| | | \ __________ /| graph | \ | | / | | \| output 1 | _________ / |_________| |__________| | | / | input 2 |/ |_________|
Complex filtergraphs are configured with the -filter_complex option. Note that this option is global, since a complex filtergraph, by its nature, cannot be unambiguously associated with a single stream or file.
The -lavfi option is equivalent to -filter_complex.
A trivial example of a complex filtergraph is the "overlay" filter, which has two video inputs and one video output, containing one video overlaid on top of the other. Its audio counterpart is the "amix" filter.
_______ ______________ ________ | | | | | | | input | demuxer | encoded data | muxer | output | | file | ---------> | packets | -------> | file | |_______| |______________| |________|
Since there is no decoding or encoding, it is very fast and there is no quality loss. However, it might not work in some cases because of many factors. Applying filters is obviously also impossible, since filters work on uncompressed data.
You can disable some of those defaults by using the "-vn/-an/-sn" options. For full manual control, use the "-map" option, which disables the defaults just described.
If 'i' is appended to the SI unit prefix, the complete prefix will be interpreted as a unit prefix for binary multiples, which are based on powers of 1024 instead of powers of 1000. Appending 'B' to the SI unit prefix multiplies the value by 8. This allows using, for example: 'KB', 'MiB', 'G' and 'B' as number suffixes.
Options which do not take arguments are boolean options, and set the corresponding value to true. They can be set to false by prefixing the option name with ``no''. For example using ``-nofoo'' will set the boolean option with name ``foo'' to false.
A stream specifier is a string generally appended to the option name and separated from it by a colon. E.g. "-codec:a:1 ac3" contains the "a:1" stream specifier, which matches the second audio stream. Therefore, it would select the ac3 codec for the second audio stream.
A stream specifier can match several streams, so that the option is applied to all of them. E.g. the stream specifier in "-b:a 128k" matches all audio streams.
An empty stream specifier matches all streams. For example, "-codec copy" or "-codec: copy" would copy all the streams without reencoding.
Possible forms of stream specifiers are:
Note that in ffmpeg, matching by metadata will only work properly for input files.
Possible values of arg are:
Note that the term 'codec' is used throughout this documentation as a shortcut for what is more correctly called a media bitstream format.
ffmpeg -sources pulse,server=192.168.0.4
ffmpeg -sinks pulse,server=192.168.0.4
By default the program logs to stderr, if coloring is supported by the terminal, colors are used to mark errors and warnings. Log coloring can be disabled setting the environment variable AV_LOG_FORCE_NOCOLOR or NO_COLOR, or can be forced setting the environment variable AV_LOG_FORCE_COLOR. The use of the environment variable NO_COLOR is deprecated and will be dropped in a following FFmpeg version.
Setting the environment variable FFREPORT to any value has the same effect. If the value is a ':'-separated key=value sequence, these options will affect the report; option values must be escaped if they contain special characters or the options delimiter ':' (see the ``Quoting and escaping'' section in the ffmpeg-utils manual).
The following options are recognized:
For example, to output a report to a file named ffreport.log using a log level of 32 (alias for log level "info"):
FFREPORT=file=ffreport.log:level=32 ffmpeg -i input output
Errors in parsing the environment variable are not fatal, and will not appear in the report.
All FFmpeg tools will normally show a copyright notice, build options and library versions. This option can be used to suppress printing this information.
ffmpeg -cpuflags -sse+mmx ... ffmpeg -cpuflags mmx ... ffmpeg -cpuflags 0 ...
Possible flags for this option are:
When FFmpeg is configured with "--enable-opencl", the options for the global OpenCL context are set via -opencl_options. See the ``OpenCL Options'' section in the ffmpeg-utils manual for the complete list of supported options. Amongst others, these options include the ability to select a specific platform and device to run the OpenCL code on. By default, FFmpeg will run on the first device of the first platform. While the options for the global OpenCL context provide flexibility to the user in selecting the OpenCL device of their choice, most users would probably want to select the fastest OpenCL device for their system.
This option assists the selection of the most efficient configuration by identifying the appropriate device for the user's system. The built-in benchmark is run on all the OpenCL devices and the performance is measured for each device. The devices in the results list are sorted based on their performance with the fastest device listed first. The user can subsequently invoke ffmpeg using the device deemed most appropriate via -opencl_options to obtain the best performance for the OpenCL accelerated code.
Typical usage to use the fastest OpenCL device involve the following steps.
Run the command:
Note down the platform ID (pidx) and device ID (didx) of the first i.e. fastest device in the list. Select the platform and device using the command:
ffmpeg -opencl_options platform_idx=<pidx>:device_idx=<didx> ...
options must be a list of key=value option pairs separated by ':'. See the ``OpenCL Options'' section in the ffmpeg-utils manual for the list of supported options.
For example to write an ID3v2.3 header instead of a default ID3v2.4 to an MP3 file, use the id3v2_version private option of the MP3 muxer:
ffmpeg -i input.flac -id3v2_version 3 out.mp3
All codec AVOptions are per-stream, and thus a stream specifier should be attached to them.
Note: the -nooption syntax cannot be used for boolean AVOptions, use -option 0/-option 1.
Note: the old undocumented way of specifying per-stream AVOptions by prepending v/a/s to the options name is now obsolete and will be removed soon.
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0 -c:v libx264 -c:a copy OUTPUT
encodes all video streams with libx264 and copies all audio streams.
For each stream, the last matching "c" option is applied, so
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0 -c copy -c:v:1 libx264 -c:a:137 libvorbis OUTPUT
will copy all the streams except the second video, which will be encoded with libx264, and the 138th audio, which will be encoded with libvorbis.
When used as an output option (before an output filename), stop writing the output after its duration reaches duration.
duration may be a number in seconds, or in "hh:mm:ss[.xxx]" form.
-to and -t are mutually exclusive and -t has priority.
-to and -t are mutually exclusive and -t has priority.
When used as an output option (before an output filename), decodes but discards input until the timestamps reach position.
position may be either in seconds or in "hh:mm:ss[.xxx]" form.
offset must be a time duration specification, see the Time duration section in the ffmpeg-utils(1) manual.
The offset is added to the timestamps of the input files. Specifying a positive offset means that the corresponding streams are delayed by the time duration specified in offset.
date must be a time duration specification, see the Date section in the ffmpeg-utils(1) manual.
An optional metadata_specifier may be given to set metadata on streams or chapters. See "-map_metadata" documentation for details.
This option overrides metadata set with "-map_metadata". It is also possible to delete metadata by using an empty value.
For example, for setting the title in the output file:
ffmpeg -i in.avi -metadata title="my title" out.flv
To set the language of the first audio stream:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -metadata:s:a:0 language=eng OUTPUT
ffmpeg -i myfile.avi -target vcd /tmp/vcd.mpg
Nevertheless you can specify additional options as long as you know they do not conflict with the standard, as in:
ffmpeg -i myfile.avi -target vcd -bf 2 /tmp/vcd.mpg
filtergraph is a description of the filtergraph to apply to the stream, and must have a single input and a single output of the same type of the stream. In the filtergraph, the input is associated to the label "in", and the output to the label "out". See the ffmpeg-filters manual for more information about the filtergraph syntax.
See the -filter_complex option if you want to create filtergraphs with multiple inputs and/or outputs.
Progress information is written approximately every second and at the end of the encoding process. It is made of "key=value" lines. key consists of only alphanumeric characters. The last key of a sequence of progress information is always ``progress''.
Disabling interaction on standard input is useful, for example, if ffmpeg is in the background process group. Roughly the same result can be achieved with "ffmpeg ... < /dev/null" but it requires a shell.
See also the option "-fdebug ts".
Note that for Matroska you also have to set the mimetype metadata tag:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -attach DejaVuSans.ttf -metadata:s:2 mimetype=application/x-truetype-font out.mkv
(assuming that the attachment stream will be third in the output file).
E.g. to extract the first attachment to a file named 'out.ttf':
ffmpeg -dump_attachment:t:0 out.ttf -i INPUT
To extract all attachments to files determined by the "filename" tag:
ffmpeg -dump_attachment:t "" -i INPUT
Technical note --- attachments are implemented as codec extradata, so this option can actually be used to extract extradata from any stream, not just attachments.
As an input option, ignore any timestamps stored in the file and instead generate timestamps assuming constant frame rate fps. This is not the same as the -framerate option used for some input formats like image2 or v4l2 (it used to be the same in older versions of FFmpeg). If in doubt use -framerate instead of the input option -r.
As an output option, duplicate or drop input frames to achieve constant output frame rate fps.
As an input option, this is a shortcut for the video_size private option, recognized by some demuxers for which the frame size is either not stored in the file or is configurable --- e.g. raw video or video grabbers.
As an output option, this inserts the "scale" video filter to the end of the corresponding filtergraph. Please use the "scale" filter directly to insert it at the beginning or some other place.
The format is wxh (default - same as source).
aspect can be a floating point number string, or a string of the form num:den, where num and den are the numerator and denominator of the aspect ratio. For example ``4:3'', ``16:9'', ``1.3333'', and ``1.7777'' are valid argument values.
If used together with -vcodec copy, it will affect the aspect ratio stored at container level, but not the aspect ratio stored in encoded frames, if it exists.
ffmpeg -i foo.mov -c:v libxvid -pass 1 -an -f rawvideo -y NUL ffmpeg -i foo.mov -c:v libxvid -pass 1 -an -f rawvideo -y /dev/null
This is an alias for "-filter:v", see the -filter option.
If the argument is prefixed with "expr:", the string expr is interpreted like an expression and is evaluated for each frame. A key frame is forced in case the evaluation is non-zero.
If one of the times is ""chapters"[delta]", it is expanded into the time of the beginning of all chapters in the file, shifted by delta, expressed as a time in seconds. This option can be useful to ensure that a seek point is present at a chapter mark or any other designated place in the output file.
For example, to insert a key frame at 5 minutes, plus key frames 0.1 second before the beginning of every chapter:
The expression in expr can contain the following constants:
For example to force a key frame every 5 seconds, you can specify:
To force a key frame 5 seconds after the time of the last forced one, starting from second 13:
Note that forcing too many keyframes is very harmful for the lookahead algorithms of certain encoders: using fixed-GOP options or similar would be more efficient.
This option has no effect if the selected hwaccel is not available or not supported by the chosen decoder.
Note that most acceleration methods are intended for playback and will not be faster than software decoding on modern CPUs. Additionally, ffmpeg will usually need to copy the decoded frames from the GPU memory into the system memory, resulting in further performance loss. This option is thus mainly useful for testing.
This option only makes sense when the -hwaccel option is also specified. Its exact meaning depends on the specific hardware acceleration method chosen.
This is an alias for "-filter:a", see the -filter option.
Note that this option will delay the output of all data until the next subtitle packet is decoded: it may increase memory consumption and latency a lot.
The first "-map" option on the command line specifies the source for output stream 0, the second "-map" option specifies the source for output stream 1, etc.
A "-" character before the stream identifier creates a ``negative'' mapping. It disables matching streams from already created mappings.
An alternative [linklabel] form will map outputs from complex filter graphs (see the -filter_complex option) to the output file. linklabel must correspond to a defined output link label in the graph.
For example, to map ALL streams from the first input file to output
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0 output
For example, if you have two audio streams in the first input file, these streams are identified by ``0:0'' and ``0:1''. You can use "-map" to select which streams to place in an output file. For example:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0:1 out.wav
will map the input stream in INPUT identified by ``0:1'' to the (single) output stream in out.wav.
For example, to select the stream with index 2 from input file a.mov (specified by the identifier ``0:2''), and stream with index 6 from input b.mov (specified by the identifier ``1:6''), and copy them to the output file out.mov:
ffmpeg -i a.mov -i b.mov -c copy -map 0:2 -map 1:6 out.mov
To select all video and the third audio stream from an input file:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0:v -map 0:a:2 OUTPUT
To map all the streams except the second audio, use negative mappings
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0 -map -0:a:1 OUTPUT
To pick the English audio stream:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map 0:m:language:eng OUTPUT
Note that using this option disables the default mappings for this output file.
Using ``-1'' instead of input_file_id.stream_specifier.channel_id will map a muted channel.
For example, assuming INPUT is a stereo audio file, you can switch the two audio channels with the following command:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map_channel 0.0.1 -map_channel 0.0.0 OUTPUT
If you want to mute the first channel and keep the second:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map_channel -1 -map_channel 0.0.1 OUTPUT
The order of the ``-map_channel'' option specifies the order of the channels in the output stream. The output channel layout is guessed from the number of channels mapped (mono if one ``-map_channel'', stereo if two, etc.). Using ``-ac'' in combination of ``-map_channel'' makes the channel gain levels to be updated if input and output channel layouts don't match (for instance two ``-map_channel'' options and ``-ac 6'').
You can also extract each channel of an input to specific outputs; the following command extracts two channels of the INPUT audio stream (file 0, stream 0) to the respective OUTPUT_CH0 and OUTPUT_CH1 outputs:
ffmpeg -i INPUT -map_channel 0.0.0 OUTPUT_CH0 -map_channel 0.0.1 OUTPUT_CH1
The following example splits the channels of a stereo input into two separate streams, which are put into the same output file:
ffmpeg -i stereo.wav -map 0:0 -map 0:0 -map_channel 0.0.0:0.0 -map_channel 0.0.1:0.1 -y out.ogg
Note that currently each output stream can only contain channels from a single input stream; you can't for example use ``-map_channel'' to pick multiple input audio channels contained in different streams (from the same or different files) and merge them into a single output stream. It is therefore not currently possible, for example, to turn two separate mono streams into a single stereo stream. However splitting a stereo stream into two single channel mono streams is possible.
If you need this feature, a possible workaround is to use the amerge filter. For example, if you need to merge a media (here input.mkv) with 2 mono audio streams into one single stereo channel audio stream (and keep the video stream), you can use the following command:
ffmpeg -i input.mkv -filter_complex "[0:1] [0:2] amerge" -c:a pcm_s16le -c:v copy output.mkv
If metadata specifier is omitted, it defaults to global.
By default, global metadata is copied from the first input file, per-stream and per-chapter metadata is copied along with streams/chapters. These default mappings are disabled by creating any mapping of the relevant type. A negative file index can be used to create a dummy mapping that just disables automatic copying.
For example to copy metadata from the first stream of the input file to global metadata of the output file:
ffmpeg -i in.ogg -map_metadata 0:s:0 out.mp3
To do the reverse, i.e. copy global metadata to all audio streams:
ffmpeg -i in.mkv -map_metadata:s:a 0:g out.mkv
Note that simple 0 would work as well in this example, since global metadata is assumed by default.
Note that the timestamps may be further modified by the muxer, after this. For example, in the case that the format option avoid_negative_ts is enabled.
With -map you can select from which stream the timestamps should be taken. You can leave either video or audio unchanged and sync the remaining stream(s) to the unchanged one.
Note that the timestamps may be further modified by the muxer, after this. For example, in the case that the format option avoid_negative_ts is enabled.
This option has been deprecated. Use the "aresample" audio filter instead.
Note that, depending on the vsync option or on specific muxer processing (e.g. in case the format option avoid_negative_ts is enabled) the output timestamps may mismatch with the input timestamps even when this option is selected.
This means that using e.g. "-ss 50" will make output timestamps start at 50 seconds, regardless of what timestamp the input file started at.
The time base is copied to the output encoder from the corresponding input demuxer. This is sometimes required to avoid non monotonically increasing timestamps when copying video streams with variable frame rate.
The time base is copied to the output encoder from the corresponding input decoder.
Default value is -1.
For example, to set the stream 0 PID to 33 and the stream 1 PID to 36 for an output mpegts file:
ffmpeg -i infile -streamid 0:33 -streamid 1:36 out.ts
ffmpeg -i h264.mp4 -c:v copy -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb -an out.h264 ffmpeg -i file.mov -an -vn -bsf:s mov2textsub -c:s copy -f rawvideo sub.txt
ffmpeg -i input.mpg -timecode 01:02:03.04 -r 30000/1001 -s ntsc output.mpg
Input link labels must refer to input streams using the "[file_index:stream_specifier]" syntax (i.e. the same as -map uses). If stream_specifier matches multiple streams, the first one will be used. An unlabeled input will be connected to the first unused input stream of the matching type.
Output link labels are referred to with -map. Unlabeled outputs are added to the first output file.
Note that with this option it is possible to use only lavfi sources without normal input files.
For example, to overlay an image over video
ffmpeg -i video.mkv -i image.png -filter_complex '[0:v][1:v]overlay[out]' -map '[out]' out.mkv
Here "[0:v]" refers to the first video stream in the first input file, which is linked to the first (main) input of the overlay filter. Similarly the first video stream in the second input is linked to the second (overlay) input of overlay.
Assuming there is only one video stream in each input file, we can omit input labels, so the above is equivalent to
ffmpeg -i video.mkv -i image.png -filter_complex 'overlay[out]' -map '[out]' out.mkv
Furthermore we can omit the output label and the single output from the filter graph will be added to the output file automatically, so we can simply write
ffmpeg -i video.mkv -i image.png -filter_complex 'overlay' out.mkv
To generate 5 seconds of pure red video using lavfi "color" source:
ffmpeg -filter_complex 'color=c=red' -t 5 out.mkv
The option is intended for cases where features are needed that cannot be specified to ffserver but can be to ffmpeg.
As a special exception, you can use a bitmap subtitle stream as input: it will be converted into a video with the same size as the largest video in the file, or 720x576 if no video is present. Note that this is an experimental and temporary solution. It will be removed once libavfilter has proper support for subtitles.
For example, to hardcode subtitles on top of a DVB-T recording stored in MPEG-TS format, delaying the subtitles by 1 second:
ffmpeg -i input.ts -filter_complex \ '[#0x2ef] setpts=PTS+1/TB [sub] ; [#0x2d0] [sub] overlay' \ -sn -map '#0x2dc' output.mkv
(0x2d0, 0x2dc and 0x2ef are the MPEG-TS PIDs of respectively the video, audio and subtitles streams; 0:0, 0:3 and 0:7 would have worked too)
There are two types of preset files: ffpreset and avpreset files.
ffpreset files are specified with the "vpre", "apre", "spre", and "fpre" options. The "fpre" option takes the filename of the preset instead of a preset name as input and can be used for any kind of codec. For the "vpre", "apre", and "spre" options, the options specified in a preset file are applied to the currently selected codec of the same type as the preset option.
The argument passed to the "vpre", "apre", and "spre" preset options identifies the preset file to use according to the following rules:
First ffmpeg searches for a file named arg.ffpreset in the directories $FFMPEG_DATADIR (if set), and $HOME/.ffmpeg, and in the datadir defined at configuration time (usually PREFIX/share/ffmpeg) or in a ffpresets folder along the executable on win32, in that order. For example, if the argument is "libvpx-1080p", it will search for the file libvpx-1080p.ffpreset.
If no such file is found, then ffmpeg will search for a file named codec_name-arg.ffpreset in the above-mentioned directories, where codec_name is the name of the codec to which the preset file options will be applied. For example, if you select the video codec with "-vcodec libvpx" and use "-vpre 1080p", then it will search for the file libvpx-1080p.ffpreset.
avpreset files are specified with the "pre" option. They work similar to ffpreset files, but they only allow encoder- specific options. Therefore, an option=value pair specifying an encoder cannot be used.
When the "pre" option is specified, ffmpeg will look for files with the suffix .avpreset in the directories $AVCONV_DATADIR (if set), and $HOME/.avconv, and in the datadir defined at configuration time (usually PREFIX/share/ffmpeg), in that order.
First ffmpeg searches for a file named codec_name-arg.avpreset in the above-mentioned directories, where codec_name is the name of the codec to which the preset file options will be applied. For example, if you select the video codec with "-vcodec libvpx" and use "-pre 1080p", then it will search for the file libvpx-1080p.avpreset.
If no such file is found, then ffmpeg will search for a file named arg.avpreset in the same directories.
ffmpeg -g 3 -r 3 -t 10 -b:v 50k -s qcif -f rv10 /tmp/b.rm
ffmpeg -f oss -i /dev/dsp -f video4linux2 -i /dev/video0 /tmp/out.mpg
Or with an ALSA audio source (mono input, card id 1) instead of OSS:
ffmpeg -f alsa -ac 1 -i hw:1 -f video4linux2 -i /dev/video0 /tmp/out.mpg
Note that you must activate the right video source and channel before launching ffmpeg with any TV viewer such as <http://linux.bytesex.org/xawtv/> by Gerd Knorr. You also have to set the audio recording levels correctly with a standard mixer.
ffmpeg -f x11grab -video_size cif -framerate 25 -i :0.0 /tmp/out.mpg
0.0 is display.screen number of your X11 server, same as the DISPLAY environment variable.
ffmpeg -f x11grab -video_size cif -framerate 25 -i :0.0+10,20 /tmp/out.mpg
0.0 is display.screen number of your X11 server, same as the DISPLAY environment variable. 10 is the x-offset and 20 the y-offset for the grabbing.
ffmpeg -i /tmp/test%d.Y /tmp/out.mpg
It will use the files:
/tmp/test0.Y, /tmp/test0.U, /tmp/test0.V, /tmp/test1.Y, /tmp/test1.U, /tmp/test1.V, etc...
The Y files use twice the resolution of the U and V files. They are raw files, without header. They can be generated by all decent video decoders. You must specify the size of the image with the -s option if ffmpeg cannot guess it.
ffmpeg -i /tmp/test.yuv /tmp/out.avi
test.yuv is a file containing raw YUV planar data. Each frame is composed of the Y plane followed by the U and V planes at half vertical and horizontal resolution.
ffmpeg -i mydivx.avi hugefile.yuv
ffmpeg -i /tmp/a.wav -s 640x480 -i /tmp/a.yuv /tmp/a.mpg
Converts the audio file a.wav and the raw YUV video file a.yuv to MPEG file a.mpg.
ffmpeg -i /tmp/a.wav -ar 22050 /tmp/a.mp2
Converts a.wav to MPEG audio at 22050 Hz sample rate.
ffmpeg -i /tmp/a.wav -map 0:a -b:a 64k /tmp/a.mp2 -map 0:a -b:a 128k /tmp/b.mp2
Converts a.wav to a.mp2 at 64 kbits and to b.mp2 at 128 kbits. '-map file:index' specifies which input stream is used for each output stream, in the order of the definition of output streams.
ffmpeg -i snatch_1.vob -f avi -c:v mpeg4 -b:v 800k -g 300 -bf 2 -c:a libmp3lame -b:a 128k snatch.avi
This is a typical DVD ripping example; the input is a VOB file, the output an AVI file with MPEG-4 video and MP3 audio. Note that in this command we use B-frames so the MPEG-4 stream is DivX5 compatible, and GOP size is 300 which means one intra frame every 10 seconds for 29.97fps input video. Furthermore, the audio stream is MP3-encoded so you need to enable LAME support by passing "--enable-libmp3lame" to configure. The mapping is particularly useful for DVD transcoding to get the desired audio language.
NOTE: To see the supported input formats, use "ffmpeg -formats".
For extracting images from a video:
ffmpeg -i foo.avi -r 1 -s WxH -f image2 foo-%03d.jpeg
This will extract one video frame per second from the video and will output them in files named foo-001.jpeg, foo-002.jpeg, etc. Images will be rescaled to fit the new WxH values.
If you want to extract just a limited number of frames, you can use the above command in combination with the -vframes or -t option, or in combination with -ss to start extracting from a certain point in time.
For creating a video from many images:
ffmpeg -f image2 -framerate 12 -i foo-%03d.jpeg -s WxH foo.avi
The syntax "foo-%03d.jpeg" specifies to use a decimal number composed of three digits padded with zeroes to express the sequence number. It is the same syntax supported by the C printf function, but only formats accepting a normal integer are suitable.
When importing an image sequence, -i also supports expanding shell-like wildcard patterns (globbing) internally, by selecting the image2-specific "-pattern_type glob" option.
For example, for creating a video from filenames matching the glob pattern "foo-*.jpeg":
ffmpeg -f image2 -pattern_type glob -framerate 12 -i 'foo-*.jpeg' -s WxH foo.avi
ffmpeg -i test1.avi -i test2.avi -map 1:1 -map 1:0 -map 0:1 -map 0:0 -c copy -y test12.nut
The resulting output file test12.nut will contain the first four streams from the input files in reverse order.
ffmpeg -i myfile.avi -b 4000k -minrate 4000k -maxrate 4000k -bufsize 1835k out.m2v
ffmpeg -i src.ext -lmax 21*QP2LAMBDA dst.ext
For details about the authorship, see the Git history of the project (git://source.ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg), e.g. by typing the command git log in the FFmpeg source directory, or browsing the online repository at <http://source.ffmpeg.org>.
Maintainers for the specific components are listed in the file MAINTAINERS in the source code tree.